In portraiture, there's a temptation for some photographers to use several lights, with the goal of creating a dramatic portrait. That can work, for sure. On the other hand, using only one light also can produce some awesome portraits. What's more, it's much easier to work with one light than with two or three lights.
In this article, we'll explore some one-light techniques. I used a Canon Speedlite 580EX II in a Westcott Apollo softbox for these shots. I shot on E-TTL, the automatic exposure mode on Canon Speedlites, and fine-tuned my exposure using the +/- control on the Speedlite. The Speedlite was triggered by a PocketWizard radio controller, which consists of a shoe-mounted transmitter and a Speedlite-mounted receiver.
You can create similar effects if you shoot using a constant light source in a softbox. I specifically mention and recommend using a softbox for portraits because an umbrella spreads the light, while a softbox, with a recessed diffusion panel, lets you direct the light. Umbrellas are good for group shots and for portraits with less dramatic shadows.
When it comes to shadows: Shadows are the soul of the photograph. Shadows add a sense of depth and dimension to a photograph. Shadows are your friend.
Before we get going, here's the main thing to remember about using any type of light: The larger the light, the softer the light; the closer the light, the softer the light. In portraiture, you usually want soft and flattering lighting.
1 | I used my one-light setup for the opening photograph in this article. I had a "voice-activated light stand" (my friend Kathy Porupski) hold the softbox directly over the subject. When you use this technique, keep two things in mind: One, make sure the speedlight is securely fastened in the softbox—you don't want it falling out and hitting the model on the head. Two, as you move the light toward the camera, you'll light more of the subject's face, and vice versa.
2 | After I took my shot of the model positioned on the floor, I played with my image in Photoshop for a different look. First, I rotated the image counterclockwise. I used the Paintbrush tool (black selected) on the lenses of the sunglasses to remove the reflection of the softbox. I like the reflection, but here I was going for a different look. And, finally, I used the Dynamic Skin Softener filter in Nik Color Efex Pro to soften the model's complexion.
3 | Here's an example of what happens when you position the light slightly behind the subject. As you can see, less of the face is illuminated. Plus, you get a cool rim-light effect.
4 | Another cool technique is to create a silhouette. Simply point the light at the background and make sure no light illuminates the subject. You can do this by shooting at a low ISO, a fast shutter speed (not higher than the max sync speed of your camera, usually around 1⁄200 sec.) and a small aperture. Use these settings and take a shot without the flash turned on. If your picture is totally black, you have the correct exposure settings—because you don't want any room light illuminating your subject. Now, turn on the flash and fire away. You'll get the best silhouette, and you'll be able to recognize the person if he or she is facing directly to the right or left.